Sand Replacement Method


– A square tray with circular hole is taken.

– The  tray is placed on the level ground. A small amount of  soil is excavated

     through the hole and weighed.

– Water content is determined by using oven drying method.

– The weight of the sand, filling the cone of sand bottle is determined seperately by filling        the cone.(The sand filling the hole  and cone should be of known weight.) And made the following calculations:


Let us consider,

Wt. of sand in the whole = W1

Wt. of sand bottle before pouring = W2

Wt. of sand bottle after pouring = W3

Wt. of sand filling the conical funnel = W4

Volume of sand filling the whole(V) = (W2- W3 – W4)/ r                                  r= unit wt. of soil

Volume of sand filling the whole = Volume of Excavated soil

Bulk density of soil (rt) = W1/V

Dry density( rd) = rt / (1+w)


w= water content of soil determined by oven drying method.

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