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4.2 BEAMS *

A beam is a structural element which has one dimension (length) considerably larger than the other two dimensions in the cross section and is supported at a few points.

* Types of supports:

Simple supports, roller supports—hinged support and fixed support Types of Beams:

1. Determinate Beams: cantilever, simply supported, one end hinged and other on the roller, overhanging

2. Indeterminate Beams: both ends hinged, propped cantilever, continuous. Statically determinate beams are the beams, in which all reaction components at supports can be found using the equations of equilibrium only. *

Types of Loadings: Concentrated load, uniformly distributed load (UDL), uniformly varying load (UVL) general loading, external moments. Analysis of Pin-Jointed Plane Frames

* A pin-jointed frame is a structure made of slender members pin connected at ends and capable of taking loads at joints. *

A perfect frame is the one which retains its shape with a minimum number of members and can carry loads applied at joints. *

A frame is said to be deficient if the number of members in it is less than that required for a perfect frame. *

The assumptions made in the analysis of pin-jointed frames are:

1. The ends of the members are pin-connected.

2. The loads act at joints only.

3. Self-weight is negligible.

4. If there are a number of members along a line of truss, they are located along the same longitudinal line.

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