A small scale civil engineering structures

1. Benches

Benches are a series of steps cut into a deep soil or rock face for the purpose of reducing the driving forces. They are mainly effective in reducing the intensity of shallow failure but generally are not very effective in improving the overall slope stability for which other methods are recommended.

2. Rockfill butter

A simple method to increase slope stability is to increase the weight of material at the toe which creates a counterforce that resists failure. A berm of earth fill can be easily dumped into the toe of a slope. Broken rock or rip rap instead of soil is preferable because it has a greater frictional resistance to the shear force it is also good for drainage consideration.

3. Check dams

Check dams are small sediment storage dam built in the channels of steep gullies to stabilize channel bed. The check dams are expensive to construct. Therefore, they are usually built only at an important location. Use of check dam reduce channel cutting and also store the flow sediment. Check dams can be constructed by reinforced concrete, stone masonry or timber log.

4. Retaining wall

It is the wall constructed for the purpose of retaining a vertical or nearly vertical earth slope. It provides adequate stability to the slope. For all types of retaining wall, good drainage facilities through the structure are essential, which is obtained with coarse backfill and foundation materials.

5. Timber crib

Timber crib walls are box structures built by interlocking logs and backfill with coarse aggregate. It is effective only where the volume of soil to be stabilized is relatively small. The structure must be able to withstand shearing, overturning and sliding at the base. Therefore it must be strongly built by burying to sufficient depth and extending beyond the critical failure plane.

6. Gabion walls

Gabion is a wire mesh, box-like containers filled with cobble sized rock that are 10-20 cm in dimension. Walls usually are expensive and simple and also quick to construct. Due to their flexibility, they can withstand foundation movement and they do not require elaborate foundation preparation. Because of pores fill they provide good drainage.

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