A window is an opening in a door, wall, roof or vehicle which permits the passage of light, sound, and air. Modern windows are generally glazed or covered in any other transparent or translucent material.
Types of Windows used in Buildings
There are many types of windows are based on their positions, materials, and functioning. Windows are divided as follows.
1. Fixed Windows:
They are fixed to the wall without any shutting or opening operation. In usual, they are kept to transmit the light into the room. Fully glazed shutters are stable to the window frame. The shutters kept are usually waterproof.
2. Sliding Windows:
In this window, window shutters are movable in the frame. The movement may be horizontal or vertical based on our requirements. The movement of shutters is done by the provision of roller bearings. Usually, this type of window is kept on buses, bank counters, shops, etc..
3. Pivoted Windows:
In this type of pivoted windows, pivots are kept to window frames. Pivot is a shaft which assists to oscillate the shutter. No rebates are needed for the frame. The swinging may either be horizontal or vertical depending upon the position of pivots.
4. Double Hung Windows:
Double-hung windows consist of a pair of shutters attached to one frame. The shutters are arranged one above the other. These two shutters can slide vertically within the frame. So, we can open the windows on top or at the bottom to our required level.
To operate the double-hung windows, a chain or cord consisting of metal weights is provided which is connected over pulleys. So, by pulling the weights of the cord, the shutters can move vertically. Then the windows can be fixed at our needed position of ventilation or light etc.
Skylights are usually provided at the top of sloped roofs. To transmit light into the rooms, skylights are kept. It is kept parallel to the sloping surface. Skylights can be unlocked when required. Lead gutters are managed to frame to make it as waterproof.
Ventilators are provided for the purpose of ventilation in the room. They are provided at a greater height than windows nearer to the roof level. It is a very small size. Horizontally pivoted shutters are provided for ventilators. Sometimes shutter is replaced by wired mesh, in this case, the sunshade is provided to prevent against rainwater.
Gable windows are provided for sloped roof buildings. These windows are provided at the gable end of the sloped roof so; they are called gable windows. They also improve the appearance of the building.
Lantern windows are needed for over the flat roofs. The main purpose of this window is to provide more light and air circulation to the interior rooms. Usually, they are provided from the roof surface so, you can close the roof surface when required.
Louvered windows are the same as louvered doors which are kept for ventilation without any outside vision. The louvers may be made of wood, glass or metal. Louvres can also be folded by the provision of cord over pulleys. We can maintain the slope of louvres by tilting cord and lifting cord.
Casement windows are widely used and common windows nowadays. The shutters are connected to frame and these can be opened and closed like door shutters. Rebates are provided to the frame to receive the shutters. The panels of shutters can be single or double. Sometimes wired mesh is kept to restrict entering of fly’s.
Usually, mild steel is utilized for making metal windows. These are less costly and have huge strengths. So, nowadays these are mostly used for public buildings, private buildings, etc.
Some other metals like aluminum, bronze, stainless steel, etc. are also used to make windows.
Sash window is a type of casement window, but in this case, panels are fully glazed. It consists of a top, bottom, and intermediate rails. The space between the rails is classified into fewer panels by mean of fewer timber members called sash bars or glazing bars.
As in the name itself corner windows are provided at the corners of the room. That means corner windows have 2 faces in normal directions. By keeping this type of windows, light or air can be transmitted into a room in two different directions.
Bay windows are projected windows from a wall that is provided to increase the area of the opening, which enables more ventilation and light from outside. The projection of bay windows is of different shapes. It may be triangular or rectangular or polygonal etc. They give a beautiful appearance to the structure.
Dormer windows are provided for sloped roofs. These are projected from the sloping surface as shown in the below image. They provide ventilation as well as lighting to the room. They also enhance the aesthetic sense of the room.
If the rooms in a building are of different ceiling heights, clerestory windows are provided for the room which has a greater ceiling height than the other rooms. The shutters were able to swing with the help of cord over pulleys. These also enhance the beauty of a building.